The Importance of Comprehensive Exams in Graduate Programs

The Comprehensive Exam

In many fields, graduate students studying for Master’s, PhDs, and other advanced degrees are required to take comprehensive exams, commonly called “comps.” Comps differ widely from field to field, and could involve written components, oral components, or other demonstrations of proficiency. Comps are often a major milestone in the graduate student’s course of study because they challenge the student to learn a very great deal about the field he or she is studying. Graduate programs can be viewed as requiring students to demonstrate both a breadth of knowledge in the field as a whole and a depth of knowledge about a specific area of interest. Whereas the dissertation is the demonstration of depth, the comprehensive exam is how a student shows breadth. Read more on achieving success in exams.

Comps or No Comps?

It seems logical to require comps exams for future PhDs and others studying for terminal degrees in the field of study. After all, a terminal degree ought to indicate that the individual is an expert in the field and has learned, if not all there is to know, at least a sufficient amount that further schooling would be impractical. A student who receives a PhD in history is, and ought to be, expected to know a very great deal about history. However, in the United States some academics hold the opinion that, in certain fields, comps exams should not be required.

Specialization

Increasingly, the academic world is characterized by intense specialization. Those who receive terminal degrees are often experts in a very, very small area of their field, rather than in the field as a whole. There are several complex reasons for this, and often the reasons differ from field to field. In some fields, especially in the sciences, specialization is necessary because it’s at the level of extreme specificity that the most important advances are made. In other fields, specialization is necessary to stand out from others who are competing for a very small number of job openings. Whatever the reason, some people think that specialization is important enough that graduate students should devote most of their time to it.

Do Comps Get in the Way?

Valuing specialization over a breadth of more general knowledge had led some people, especially academics, to conclude that comprehensive exams are unnecessary and even detrimental to students’ futures. For example, in the field of philosophy, there are far more new PhDs given each year than there are open academic positions. This means that getting a job at a university in a philosophy department is extremely competitive. In order to stand out from the crown, young philosophers need to publish articles in their areas of interest, attend conferences, and distinguish themselves in any other way that they possibly can. According to some, the intensive study and preparation required to take the comprehensive exams in philosophy prevent PhD students from devoting enough time to distinguishing themselves in the field.

The Value of Expertise

Although the arguments against comps are understandable, getting rid of comprehensive exams would be detrimental to the academic world. If graduate students are not required to learn as much as they can about their fields, they will be less prepared to teach others or to enter demanding jobs after they receive their degrees. Although they may excel as specialists, they will lack the flexibility, historical perspective, and big-picture view that higher education ought to impart. It might be argued that, if specializing works, then it must be a good thing. However, the value of advanced degrees can only go down if those who obtain them can no longer be considered experts. Institutions that grant terminal degrees to students who have not demonstrated, through comprehensive exams, that they are among the most knowledgeable individuals in the field, will lose their reputations as prestigious centers of learning.

Educational Malpractice

In the US, educational malpractice is not an unheard term. Students and parents have dragged educational institutions in courts on account of neglectful teaching, carelessness and inability to make the candidates competent enough to get employment. In most of the educational malpractice cases, plaintiffs have claimed that the educational institutions and its teachers or staff were unable to fulfill their duties of educating them properly, as promised at the time of admission.

Failed Educational Malpractice Lawsuits: Prominent Causes

Educational malpractice cases have always attracted debates from scholars and judicial stalwarts. It is a fact that in many cases, colleges and universities always had a stronghold in the cases due to reasons that are not very difficult to understand. There are plenty of reasons why the judiciary has discarded plaintiffs arguments in a majority of cases against educational institutions. The biggest limitation in announcing a punishment against educational institutions in malpractice cases is that courts don’t have an exact definition of what all constitutes the duties to educate a child. It is yet to decide, when should a child be deemed educated? Just because the child is unable to read or write with the expected level of proficiency at the end of educational year, makes the school or college responsible for it? Similarly, the reasons behind failure of a student to come up to an expected mark, after learning was imparted to him or her can’t be exactly stated. A child spends significant number of hours at home besides the school. What if the child didn’t diligently pursue his or her studies at home? Or what if the parents were careless in looking after the child and helping him at his work. It is a fact that good learning atmosphere is not only important at school but also at home. Moreover, every child is capable in his or her own unique ways. Not everyone has same aptitude, emotional, social, cultural and environmental upbringing. This effects performance in the academic career. Considering public schools, colleges or universities responsible for the poor performance of a student certainly raises several questions.

Educational Malpractice Suits

A large number of legal lawsuits have been filed against institutions on several charges. While not pointing out to exact cases and their complete details, here are some common reasons as to why parents, students and colleges or universities have been in the courtrooms.

A school sued parents for not paying the tuition fees and in return the parents sued the school on charges of racism, poor education practices and absenteeism of the school staff.
A group of students battled in court against their college administration for being unable to stop cheating and using unfair means by several students in the college exams.
Some cases have also been filed by students who passed high school but complained of having reading and writing skills at par with seventh grade students.
A child is misdiagnosed with a learning disability, is sent to a normal school and is unable to learn anything for many years. Parents sue the doctor and the school, both.
A student joined a college after winning athletic scholarships however, after completing four years of education, he feels incompetent in the employment world. Sues the college eventually.
Several cases also include stances where vocational training institutions have been sued because even after the complete training, students ended up with no employment.

The above examples of educational malpractice lawsuits, though don’t directly depict the exact cases, are just some incidents, where lawsuits have been filed against private and public educational institutions. It is a fact that many cases in educational malpractices have been rejected by courts due to the inability of the plaintiffs to prove in the court that the defendant was responsible for the loss occurred to plaintiffs. Nevertheless, in some cases, lawsuits have been won by plaintiffs and that has triggered hopes for many others who have been in the legal battle against institutions.

Importance of Vocational Education

A few years ago, vocational courses were thought to be for people who did not have the aptitude to study in a college and thus, needed skills in a particular field, to gain employment. This scenario, however, has completely changed today. These days, people have realized their importance and are opting for such courses, both online and offline, to gain skills related to a particular field so that their job prospects can improve.

Benefits of Vocational Education and Training

Lesser Education Costs
Not everyone can afford to go college as a four-year degree course, plus the hostel fees, commuting, added costs of books, can turn out to be very expensive. Vocational courses are a cheaper alternative for people who do not want to take up a loan to go to college. Many vocational courses, similar to four-year degrees, provide placement to the students. This makes them quite useful for those who do not have the means to shell out money for a college degree.

Prepares for a Job
Vocational education prepares a person for a specific job. It equips a person with the skills and qualities required to do a particular job, such as fashion designing, interior decoration, computer networking, auto repairing, etc. Many a time, the curriculum for the courses is prepared after taking suggestions from the local employers. Along with classroom instructions, practical knowledge is imparted through field work. Laboratory learning is emphasized to give the students practical knowledge on a given subject. This prepares the student for the job at hand and thus, he is able to give full justice to his profession, due to his vast knowledge.

Easy Employment
Vocational education makes it easier for the students to find employment. Usually, it is seen that employers prefer to hire a student who has done a vocational course rather than a college pass out, as by doing a vocational course, a student is trained specifically for a particular job. The student already possesses the right temperament, skills, qualities and education for the job and the employers feel that he will be more successful than a regular college pass out due to his knowledge. Thus, easy employment is one of the chief advantages that students from a vocational course have over others.

Success in Career
People who are already employed and those who want to get further education to advance their careers, cannot afford to take a four-year break and pursue a college degree. So, in order to enhance their skills and qualifications, an alternative is to do a vocational course. The time duration for the course is less, but the skills that are imparted to students through such courses, are quite comparable to the college courses, in terms of quality. Thus, by doing a vocational course, a professional can enhance his career prospects and achieve success.

Promotes Entrepreneurship
After doing a vocational course, a person is equipped enough to start his own business. This course of action is taken up by many a vocational course pass out students. Thus, such courses promote entrepreneurship, which is a very good thing for the economy today, considering that the recession has left many without jobs. Vocational courses increase the number of small businesses, which further increase employment, thus reducing the stress on the government to provide jobs for the unemployed.

Before opting for a vocational course, a student should ensure that the institute he is applying for is of good repute, both in terms of education quality and placements in the past. Once these things are settled, should a student invest his time and money in a particular course. As mentioned above, vocational education provides job specific skills and contributes to career success. It imparts specialized knowledge, which is the need of the hour today! This proves that in many aspects, vocational education is as good as college education!

Why is Education the Key to Success

Everyone of us is a bundle of unique gifts and talents. Our relative success in life depends on how much we believe in ourselves, trust our own private genius, nurture it and let it grow freely. What education does is that it provides us with the opportunity to unravel and realize our inborn talents, while providing us with the skills of thinking and solving problems on our own. Both education and success are relative concepts in the sense that there is a wide difference of opinion regarding what is real education and what is real success.

What is Real Education?

Real education is the one which enables you to think for yourself and apply what you have learned. Purely knowing facts and being able to effectively remember and recall them isn’t being educated. To be educated is being able to make your own decisions and form your own opinions about things. It is the imparting of skills that enable you to succeed in any field of human endeavor and make your original contribution. What good education requires is a one-to-one interaction between a good teacher and student.

There are two factors of education which must mold two different aspects of the human psyche – one is analytical intelligence and the other is emotional intelligence. The former deals with the ability to solve technical problems while the latter deals with the ability to empathize, communicate, connect with our fellow human beings. A wholesome education system must educate both these facets of the human psyche to mold a character with all the abilities required to live a happy and successful life.

Why is Education the Key to Success

Man is what his thoughts make him. Education provides direction to these thoughts. Success is more than just accumulation of material wealth. I believe that success is not a destination but a never ending journey in self exploration. It is unlocking your true potential to make your life itself a work of art. Success has more than one dimensions to it. Acquiring material wealth is not the only one. To what degree have you conquered your self and achieved liberation from wanting and needing things is another indicator of success. Education plays a large role in determining our potential for achieving this success. Here are some of the prime arguments supporting the idea of education as the veritable key to success.

High Educational Qualifications Provide Better Job Opportunities
Specialized knowledge gained through higher education opens opportunities in the form of well paying jobs, with a challenging work profile. While higher education may not guarantee success, it certainly puts you in a position to work with the best in the field and gain valuable experience, which helps you in the long term pursuit of professional success. So graduation through college and working hard to get through graduate school has its benefits.

Provides the Requisite Skill Set to Succeed
Education that enables individuals to succeed is not just the formal kind. The direct education that one gains through hands-on experience and working with the masters in a field, that goes beyond purely bookish knowledge, prepares you for success. Real education begins when you start applying what you learned through formal education to solve real world problems. The discipline, perseverance and ability to apply oneself pave the path to success.

Provides Access to the Vast Store of Human Knowledge
Just being able to read and write, provides you access to the vast store of human knowledge in the form of books, which is the combined wisdom of ages. A man benefits from the path shown by the great masters of any field by accessing this knowledge store. Distilling knowledge to gain wisdom is the ultimate aim of education. Great minds like Newton have acknowledged the contributions of their predecessors which contributed to their success. Standing on the shoulders of the great giants of men who made magnanimous contributions to human knowledge, we can see further than they did.

Education Through Experience Provides the Real Edge
A college degree or any kind of formal education can provide you with the knowledge required to succeed in your field. It does not ensure success unless you learn to apply what you learned and apply it effectively to find innovative solutions. Education provides you with the means, but the application required to succeed must come from within you. The edge that winners gain over their competitors is through experience and out of the box thinking.

Ultimately Success Is All About Self Belief
No institution can provide better education than life itself. Besides conventional education, the lessons we learn through our day-to-day life, our ability to adapt and self introspect, adoption of a strong value system and most importantly, self belief are the keys to success. The importance of education lies in its ability to forge a man of character.

The real key to success is self belief, which can unlock your inner potential. Education which puts you on the path of self discovery, leading to self belief, adds meaning to your life and provides you with the means to achieve lasting success in life. As rightly put by W.B.Yeats, education lights the inner fire and provides us with the ability to think independently, making success only a matter of time.

Impact of Technology on Education

Technology has revolutionized the field of education. The importance of technology in schools cannot be ignored. In fact, with the onset of computers in education, it has become easier for teachers to impart knowledge and for students to acquire it. The use of technology has made the process of teaching and learning all the more enjoyable.

Technology is a teaching aid
Computers offer an interactive audio-visual medium. PowerPoint presentations and animation software can be used to present information in an interactive way. Owing to the audio-visual effects, this way of teaching invites greater interest from students. The method is equally helpful for teachers. Projectors and screens facilitate simultaneous viewing of information by a large number of students. Addressing systems using microphones and speakers make it possible for teachers to reach a larger number of students simultaneously. These teaching aids have led to improvements in student attendance and their attentiveness in class. Interactive media have proven to be useful in increasing students’ concentration levels.

Technology has made student life easy
Technology aids student expression. Students can use much more than just pen and paper to express themselves or present what they have learned. They can use software to make presentations and projects. This makes them more interested in the subject and leads to better retention of information. With technological aids, they can make easy-to-remember notes and a creative presentation of the information they have acquired. It won’t be wrong to say that application of technology has made a student’s life easy. It’s easier for students to carry a PDA than carrying big fat books to school. An iPad is less bulkier than a pile of notebooks or an ebook reader much lighter than a book.

It’s easier to store information
Computers enable better and more robust storage of information. If you weigh chalk, board, books, and notebooks against technology, you find that technology can substitute for any and all of these. Computers have replaced chalk and board; they can even do the talking sometimes while the teacher takes a step back and lets the presentations ‘speak’. Digital libraries require no physical space and students and teachers sitting in different parts of the world can access the same library at the same time. Compact memory devices have replaced notebooks and a keyboard and computer mouse are the new writing devices. What may have required hundred pages of a book can be compacted into a tiny memory chip. It can take hours to write, but it takes only seconds to type. Storing data has become much easier, owing to technology.

Information is easily accessible
The Internet is a huge information base. It can be used as an effective tool for acquiring knowledge. All a web user needs to do is to key in queries to search engines. Users are presented with thousands of search results. There are several websites and web directories that offer information on literally everything in the world. And all this is just a few clicks away. Both teachers and students can benefit from this.

Technology has eliminated space and time constraints
Online education and distance learning have given a new dimension to education and higher learning. Even if students are geographically far away from each other, they can be a part of one classroom. Though not physically but virtually, they can. Many educational institutes offer online courses, which eliminates time and space constraints in acquiring education. Universities offer online educational programs wherein students can interact with their teachers over the Internet, access reference material from the University website, and earn degrees online.

Teaching is sharing
Thanks to the application of technology, education has become more collaborative. With plethora of information so easily available to students, they can be a part of the process; they don’t need to remain at the receiving end. Owing to the use of technology, subject experts can come together to formulate courses, design assessments, and better the process of teaching. The day isn’t far, when students located in different parts of the world will be able to seek advice from experts spread across the globe. Education will be customized then. It will cater to different learning needs and varying grasping abilities and interests of students.

Mutual impact
Today, computer education is a part of school and college curricula. Considering the wide range of applications of computer technology, it is necessary for each one of us to be computer-friendly. Considering the advantages of the Internet technology, it is important for each of us to gain basic knowledge of Internet access and web research. We live in a technology-age and hence, it is important for us to be abreast with the latest inventions in the field. With education, we acquire knowledge of the functioning and use of different pieces of technology. And with the application of technology, we can educate ourselves better. This is the impact that technology and education have on each other. Education boosts the use of technology and technology aids education.

The importance of technology in education cannot be stressed enough. The introduction of technology in the educational field has made the process of learning and knowledge-sharing, a more interactive and pleasurable experience. Perhaps, the greatest impact of technology on education is the change in perspective. The paradigm shift in thinking from local to global can be attributed to technology. Indeed technology is one of God’s greatest gifts to mankind.

Scaffolding In Education

Scaffolding is a concept based on the theory proposed by Lev Vygotsky, known as, ‘Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)’. It is one of the most popular teaching methods. In this mode of instruction, a teacher helps the student initially, to learn a new concept and offers maximum assistance. Gradually, the teacher sets up newer tasks for the students to perform and apply their knowledge independently. The zone of proximal development literally means the distance between what children can do on their own and what they can do when assisted by an adult. Scaffolding in education is a strategy in which a knowledgeable person equips the student and provides him with all the information and support to acquire or learn a particular thing.

Basics

Teachers use this strategy regularly in classrooms. A teacher demonstrates a particular skill to students and then provides them with assistance, while students attempt to master the skill. It literally is transferring the responsibility from the teacher to the student in order to teach the student to work independently. The assistance is not taken away immediately, rather it is a gradual transformation. One of the examples of scaffolding would be when a teacher teaches students how to solve a sum in maths using given properties. The teacher then asks students to solve the sum on their own and come up with the answer and corrects them if they have made mistakes. Teaching itself is a skill, therefore before using this strategy, a tutor has to be skilled with his teaching skills. This strategy helps students learn from their mistakes and clears all doubts about certain concepts while mastering a skill.

Characteristics

Jamie McKenzie, the editor of an online education journal has pointed out the eight characteristics of the scaffolding strategy that a teacher must follow in order to teach a student. They are as follows.

A step by step instruction procedure helps in reducing confusion over concepts of acquiring skills.
Explain the importance of learning or mastering a particular skill.
The students must be able to analyze the instructions and come up with their ways to tackle the matter.
Offering assessment of the work students have done helps them learn and understand what is expected of them.
A teacher must point out other resources where students can refer for help to learn more about the skill or information being taught to them
The activity must be well planned and keep students interested and should not be posed as a fear in any which way, due to which they will lose interest in understanding the concept of the task.
Efficient delivery of the instruction will save time and is a quick and interesting way of educating students.
The basic aim of this strategy is to provide knowledge to students and help them overcome their fear of performing and making decisions.

Examples

The earliest application of the study was done with toddlers of ages 3, 4, and 5. They were given the task of making a pyramid with a set of blocks. The tutor was asked to help the child only as much it would for him to understand what was to be done. This study was done by Wood, Ross, and Bruner in 1986. From this study they came up with 6 forms of support that a child could be provided with.
Another example was of reciprocal teaching, a study carried out by Palinscar and Brown in 1985. Here students were provided with reading strategies by a tutor. These strategies were;

Self-Directed Summarizing
Questioning
Clarifying
Predicting

The tutor helped the students with each of these strategies till they could understand the importance of each and its application.

Advantages

The main advantage of this strategy is that it helps the learners associate acquired knowledge with new concepts. It also helps in building a sort of self-confidence in students. It also helps reduce fear and anxiety about a certain concept, which if not taken away, leads to frustration. Another advantage is that it is tailored according to the individual requirement of the learner.

Disadvantages

As mentioned in the advantages section, that it is tailored for individual learners, application of this strategy in a classroom gets quite tedious. The strength of a class is often large and applying the strategy to each student may become quite time-consuming.

Software Applications

To overcome the disadvantage of individual attention, there are various software applications available for scaffolding, which a teacher can offer students as a learning resource. This proves the importance of technology in education. There are certain software tools, such as Thinker Tools, Knowledge Integration Environment, and Progress Portfolio, which help learners master the skills he wishes to acquire.

Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/scaffolding-in-education.html

Beliefs about the Purpose of Education

Education, simply stated, is the process of gaining knowledge, learning forms of proper conduct and acquiring technical competency in a specific field. It involves cultivating the mind and instilling values that enable an individual to distinguish between the right and the wrong. It includes developing skills pertaining to a specific field and also aims at achieving overall development. Formal education is divided into phases starting from primary school, continuing through higher education followed by education in a specific field (specialization). But education never really ends. You learn something from every incident you are exposed to, every experience you have and every person you meet. The process of education is believed to begin in the mother’s womb and it continues throughout one’s life.

We seldom think of what the real purpose of education is. We hardly think of the reason why education is so important. It is while we grow up that we begin to realize the role of education and understand how it applies to daily life. We begin to realize the importance of education only after it begins finding applications in our professional and personal life. If education is the process of gathering knowledge, it can never really end as knowledge is infinite and one can never claim to have acquired all of it.

The fundamental purpose of education is to teach a person to read and write, that is to make him literate. Reading abilities that are acquired in school, go a long way in enabling an individual to read more and more. And every bit read, is a new lesson learned. The fundamentals of science and math which one acquires during school, are pillars on which his understanding of life is based. How did you know the Earth is round? Who told you why the sky looks blue? How did you know 2 + 2 is 4? How did you know you have 10 fingers, two eyes and a nose? It’s through education that you learned about yourself and the world around you. That’s the basic purpose of education – to make an individual aware.

Education is believed to be responsible for the cultivation of a civilized society. Imparting education to people enables the development of a responsible society. Education helps in imbibing moral values in individuals and their education, in turn, helps in the creation of a cultured society. Education gives one a deep understanding of living, making him capable of living.

Education brings about overall progress of society. Education gives an individual, better prospects of earning a living. It makes an individual self-sufficient. Education produces individuals who are not just resources but assets for the society. It develops individuals who can contribute to wealth creation in the country. While people are earning for themselves, they are also creating wealth for the organization they work with. With every flourishing organization, the government earns (in the form of taxes paid or direct profit-making in case of government organizations). Every organization thus shares the nation’s responsibility of achieving monetary gains. The educated lot in a country helps it earn money, the means of living.

Education helps an individual acquire social skills, which enable him to interact with people around, maintain social relations and blend well with others in society. Educations is an individual’s tool to thrive in society. As a part of the educational system, every individual learns with a group of other individuals of his age. Throughout education, he is part of a larger group. These years expose him to competition. This is when an individual tastes both successes and failures. Education also helps in the building of interpersonal skills. This is what education is aimed at – development of social skills.

Bill Beattie, a famous author believes that education should teach us how to think, rather than telling us what to think. Education does play a role in developing one’s creative thinking skills and imaginative power. Eric Hoffer, an American social writer, believes that the main purpose of education is to build a will and facility to learn. He believes that the objective of education is to produce learning individuals and not necessarily learned ones. Bishop Creighton, on similar lines states that education should aim at creating people who continually ask questions. By this he means to say that education should fuel one’s thirst for knowledge.

It’s on the basis of education that an individual can pursue his dreams. Education helps a person meet his career objectives and achieve economic growth. Education builds resourceful human beings out of illiterate individuals. Education gives a sense of personal fulfillment. An educated individual having experienced its positive effects, encourages the idea of education. An educated individual promotes education in his family. Thus he contributes to the spread of education, starting from a small unit of society – his family. The idea of education and a strong belief in its benefits on individuals and the society, are transferred from one generation to another. One educated individual can prove to be instrumental in the educational development of his family, the future generations and in turn, the society. The spread of education is one of its purposes.

Education helps create good teachers. Why not? On acquiring education, an individual gains the ability to share what he has learned with the less learned. He acquires the ability to impart his knowledge to the less knowledgeable; he gains the ability to teach. Now, not every educated individual is a good teacher. But education is definitely a doorway leading to the field of education – where one becomes the ambassador of education itself.

Educational Publishers

Writing a book or a journal and then getting it published is not an overnight affair. It’s because there’s a connection between the author, typesetters and the publishers. The process through which a write-up reaches a publishing house is quite interesting. In this article we have first explained you the process briefly and then presented you the list of best educational publishers in the world.

The author writes his content in the form of journals or books. The hard copies and Internet files are then sent to publication companies. The files are then retrieved by the in-house typesetting department or separate entities working with the same. They undertake the responsibility of editing the journals allotted to publication houses which have direct contact with the authors. The journals are then sent back to publishing houses for recheck and then to the respective authors for final approval. In case errors in editing are detected, the files are sent back to the typesetters for re-correction. Once the author gives his final statement of approval, the publication house prints the journals and books as hard copies. They are then distributed in the market for sale. Today, many big and small educational publishers and printing companies have mushroomed all over the world. However, the vintage companies, like Macmillan, Oxford, etc., are still ruling the publishing market.

Macmillan Publishers
Macmillan Publishers Limited or the Macmillan Group was founded by Alexander Macmillan and Daniel Macmillan in the year, 1843. They have established offices in more than 41 countries and their operation is carried out in 30 other countries. The company at present is owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing group. It has published works of great authors and poets like Rabindranath Tagore, W.B Yeats, Thomas Hughes, Rudyard Kipling, etc. They have also published articles in the best scientific journal, ‘Nature’.

Oxford University Press
Popular as OUP, it’s a department in the Oxford University, formed by a group of 15 members from academics, headed by the Vice Chancellor who acts as the delegate of the Press. OUP is the biggest university press in the world. It became a major printing company, publishing prayer books, holy books, including Bibles. Oxford English dictionary is one of the most famous publications of OUP. They started expanding their business beyond United Kingdom. They established their office in New York in the year 1896. It takes contracts of book binding and printing operations globally.

Cambridge University Press
The publishing house of University of Cambridge is named as Cambridge University Press. It is the oldest publication house, granted through ‘Letters Patent’ by Henry VIII in the year 1534. The press has dual functions of being an educational as well as an academic publisher. It publishes education related books and references containing History of Cambridge, Literature of Cambridge, academic journals, classics, religion, philosophy and literature. Publication works also include monographs, professional books, English language teaching tools and electronic publishing as well.

Random House
Random House Inc. was owned by the German private media corporation in the year 1998. It was actually founded by Donald Klopfer and Bennett Cerf in the year 1927. Random house is popular as the umbrella brand for Bertelsmann book publication house. Random House has a separate wing for movie production. Random House group has its main branch in the New York City while sub-branches are spread in the UK, South Africa, New Zealand, India and Australia as well. Its imprints include Alfred A. Knopf, Doubleday, The Modern Library, Alfred A, Crown Publishing, Group, Bantam, etc. Random House’s patented creation, Random House Dictionary of the English Language is popular in the U.S. and other countries as well.

Farrar, Straus and Giroux
Popular as FSG, is known for its premium quality of publishing and it has published works of Nobel prize, Pulitzer prize and National Book Award winners. Their authors are mostly novelists, fiction writers, and poets like, T.S. Eliot, Hermann Hesse, Philip Roth, Philip Larkin, Elizabeth Bishop, John Ashbery, etc. Its imprints are Hill and Wang, North Point Press, Sarah Crichton Books and Faber and Faber. This American book publishing company was founded by John Chipman Farrar and Roger W. Straus, Jr. in the year 1946. After the death of Farrar, a large portion of FSG was sold to the famous German publishing company, Georg von Holtzbrinck.

Simon and Schuster
Simon and Schuster, Inc. is a New York based educational publisher founded in the year 1924. It’s actually a division of CBS corporation that was founded by M. Lincoln Schuster and Richard L. Simon. Its imprinters include Aladdin Paperbacks, Howard Books, Pocket Books, Random House, HarperCollins and Penguin. The annual turnover of this publication house is more than 2000 titles under 35 different imprints. It gained much popularity when it started publishing crosswords puzzles. Charles Scribner’s Sons, a major imprint became famous during the 20th century for publishing creations of famous authors like, Thomas Wolfe, Ernest Hemingway, Kurt Vonnegut, F. Scott Fitzgerald, etc.

I hope the information provided in this article about the world-class educational publishers has proven useful to you. Apart from these, companies like Princeton University Press, Library of Congress, Andromeda, H.W. Wilson, Pearson, ThomsonReuters, McGraw-Hill Education, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Scholastic Wiley, Wolters Kluve and Informa also have huge functional domains that are well established all over the world.

Benefits of Educational Technology

Today, everything that we come across has some technological connotation to it. Be it at home, school or workplace, technology has found a comfortable niche and has become an integral part of life. With the use of technology, several arenas are seeing changes and education is also one of them. The birth of educational technology has proved to be a boon to students the world over. Not only in the regular setting, but also in educating students with special needs have known to be benefited with the introduction of this modern invention.

What is Educational Technology?
The term ‘educational technology’ has a broad perspective and is also referred to as instructional technology or learning technology. This method plays a vital role in enhancing the learning process of students and also assists teachers in communicating with the students in an easy way. Educational technology can be a classroom affair, or can be even taken out of the classroom. This technology has successfully transformed the stereotypical image of classrooms into a modern and more interesting one. Thanks to this modern development, classrooms are no longer a boring place and learning is actually a fun experience. With the use of computers and software programs, which provide learning materials, technology has changed education to a great extent.

Educational Technology Benefits
There are a number of benefits of introducing technology in the field of education. There has been a positive impact of technology on education. Virtual classrooms have made learning easier for the student community. With the potential use of technology, the learning speed and style have undergone a sea change and communication has become easier.

One of the benefits of educational technology for students is that it helps them improve their learning capabilities. Since it is one field which is constantly changing, new updates can be easily introduced to the students and class plans can be prepared with the help of the software.
In the earlier days, education was considered to be mostly for the elite class and people under other strata were quite ignorant of it. With the introduction of educational technology, there is no discrimination and everyone is equally accessible to get educated.
The information can be portrayed in various ways with the help of study materials. Knowledge has become easily accessible to students in every part of the world with the implementation of technology in the field of education. Online classrooms help students to interact with other students belonging to the same stream, but located somewhere else in the world.
Since the Internet is the main medium and other things like handheld tablet PCs and smart boards have entered the arena, students do not have to carry heavy backpacks loaded with books. They can walk in comfortably to the classroom where these equipment are already placed.
With the birth of virtual classrooms, the instructor from any part of the world can teach the learner (or learners) who may be living at the other end. The reach of this technology is quite far and students living in the remote parts can also avail it with ease.
In special education, the educational technology has brought about a sea change where the needs of students are catered to in a different manner. With the introduction of the software which teaches students with special needs, the appropriate study materials are designed so that learning is comfortable.

With the inclusion of technology, the concept of education is undergoing a modification, for the betterment of the students as well as the teachers. Hence, the introduction of technology is important in education. Thanks to educational technology, now learning and teaching have become an enjoyable experience.